Property Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Fish

A focal point of our property is the series of ponds and wetlands that range from the 140 acre pond to smaller semipermanent ponds with wet phases lasting a few years and vernal temporary pools that last just a few weeks in the spring. Some of the more permanent ponds will be aestival (freezing to the bottom during winter) while others are deep enough that they do not freeze entirely. The variety of ponds and wetlands on the property provide habitats for a number of animals, birds and plants as well as a rich fauna of aquatic macroinvertebrates. It is expected that over 130 species of aquatic insects will be recorded. Aquatic insects form an important link between the productivity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Mass emergences of adult mosquitoes, midges, mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies and caddisflies provide significant food pulses for waterfowl and other insect feeding birds. Snails, leeches and amphipods are also important components of the aquatic food web and serve as food for many species.

A temporary stream is present on the property but it does not last long enough to develop a true running water macroinvertebrate community.

After extensive flooding in 2010/2011 fathead minnows were observed in the main pond adding a link to the aquatic food web. Five-spined sticlebacks are also now common in the pond. These fish have attracted cormorants, pelicans, kingfishers, herons and other birds to the property.

Below is a preliminary list of the aquatic fauna that have been recorded or could potentially occur (indicated by an ?) based on their distribution (~ 40 km from the property) and larval/adult habitat requirements. Although there are no permanent lotic (running water) habitats present on the land there is adult migration, especially strong fliers ie blackflies, from the creeks and rivers in the vicinity.

Fish

Aquatic Insects

    Mayflies (Ephemeroptera)

  • Baetidae
    • Callibaetis sp
    • ?Callibaetis pallidus
    • ?Callibaetis ferruginous
    • Cloeon dipterum
  • Caenidae
    • Caenis youngi
    • Caenis latipennis
    • ?Caenis hilaris
    • Caenis amica
  • Polymitarcyidae
    • Ephoron album (Say)

    Dragonflies & Damselflies (Odonata) (Thanks to D Halstead and K Giroux)

  • Coenagrionidae
    • Nehalennia irene
    • Enallagma annexum
    • Enallagma boreale Selys
    • Enallagma clausum Morse
    • ? Enallagma ebrium (Hagen)
    • Coenagrion angulatum
    • Coenagrion resolutum (Hagen)
  • Lestidae
    • Lestes disjunctus disjunctus Selys
    • Lestes unguiculatus Hagen
  • Aeshnidae
    • Aeshna eremita
    • Aeshna interrupta lineata Walker
    • ? Aeshna sitchensis Walker
    • ? Aeshna umbrosa umbrosa Walker
  • Corduliidae
    • American Emerald Cordulia shurtleffi Scudder
  • Libellulidae
    • Libellula pulchella Drury
    • Libellula quadrimaculata Linnaeus
    • Sympetrum danae Sulzer
    • Sympetrum internum Montgomery 1911
    • Sympetrum costiferum
    • ? Sympetrum madidum (Hagen)
    • ? Sympetrum obtrusum (Hagen)
    • Leucorrhinia intacta
    • Leucorrhinia hudsonica (Selys)
    • Leucorrhinia borealis Hagen

    True Bugs (Hemiptera)

  • Belostomatidae (Giant Water Bug)
    • Lethocerus americanus
  • Gerridae (Water striders)
    • Gerris buenoi Kirkaldy 1911
    • ? Gerris dissortis Drake and Harris 1930
    • ? Gerris remigis Say 1832
    • Gerris comatus
  • Corixidae (Water boatman)
    • Callicorixa audeni Hungerford 1928
    • ? Cenocorixa bifida (Hungerford) 1926
    • ? Cenocorixa dakotensis (Hungerford) 1928
    • ? Cenocorixa expleta (Uhler)1895
    • Cymatia americanus Flor 1860
    • ? Dasycorixa hybrida (Hungerford) 1926
    • ? Dasycorixa rawsoni Hungerford 1948
    • Hesperocorixa michiganensis
    • Hesperocorixa atopodonta (Hungerford) 1916
    • ? Palmacorixa buenoi Abbott 1913
    • ? Sigara conocephala (Hungerford) 1926
    • Sigara decoratella (Hungerford) 1926
    • Sigara bicoloripennis (Walley) 1936
    • Sigara solensis (Hungerford) 1926
    • Trichocorixa sexcincta
  • Notonectidae (Backswimmers )
    • ? Buenoa confusa Truxal 1953
    • ? Notonecta borealis Bueno and Hussey 1923
    • ? Notonecta kirbyi Hungerford 1925
    • Notonecta undulata Say 1832
  • Veliidae
    • ? Microvelia buenoi Drake 1920
  • Saldidae (Shore bugs)
    • ? Saldula bassingeri Drake 1949
    • ? Saldula nigrita (Parshely) 1922
    • ? Saldula pallipes (Fabricus) 1794
    • ? Saldula palustris (Douglas) 1874

    Lepidoptera (Moths)

  • Crambidae
    • Synclita nr obliteralis

    Neuroptera (Spongilla flies)

  • Sisyridae
    • Sisyria fuscata

    Trichoptera (Caddisflies)

  • Hydroptilidae
    • Agraylea multipunctata
    • ?Hydroptila ajax Ross 1938
  • Leptoceridae
    • Mystacides sepulchralis
    • Oecetis cinerascens
    • ?Ceraclea ancylus (Vorhies) 1909
    • ?Ceraclea resurgens (Walker) 1852
    • Ceraclea cf alagma
    • Ceraclea cf canellatus
    • Ylodes reuteri
  • Limnephilidae
    • Anabolia bimaculata (Walker) 1852
    • ?Anabolia consocia (Walker) 1852
    • Limnephilus hyalinus Hagen
    • Limnephilus externus Hagen
    • ?Limnephilus canadensis Banks 1908
    • ?Limnephilus extractus Walker 1852
    • Limnephilus infernalis (Banks)
    • Limnephilus labus Ross
    • ?Limnephilus parvulus (Banks) 1905
    • Limnephilus sericeus (Say)
    • Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) 1873
  • Phryganeidae
    • Phryganea cinerea
    • Agrypnia deflata (Milne)
    • Agrypnia pagetana
    • ? Agrypnia straminea Hagen 1873
  • Hydropsychiidae
    • Hydropsyche alternans (Walker)
  • Polycentropodidae
    • ? Neureclipsis bimaculata (Linnaeus) 1758
    • unidentified species

    Coleoptera (Beetles)

  • Dysticidae (Diving Beetles)
    • ? Acilius athabascae Larson 1975
    • Agabus spp
    • ? Agabus erichsoni Gemminger and Harold 1868
    • ? Agabus punctulatus Aube' 1838
    • Colymbetes sp
    • Dytiscus alaskanus Balfour-Browne 1944
    • ? Dytiscus circumcinctus Ahrens 1811
    • Dytiscus cordieri Aube' 1838
    • Dytiscus dauricus Gebler 1832
    • ? Dytiscus fasciventris Say 1824
    • ? Dytiscus harrisii Kirby 1837
    • ? Graphoderus occidentalis Horn 1883
    • Graphoderus perplexus Sharp 1882
    • Graphoderus liberus (Say)
    • ? Hydaticus piceus LeConte 1863
    • ? Hydroporus fuscipennis Schaum 1868
    • ? Hygrotus impressonopunctatus (Schaller) 1783
    • ? Hygrotus masculinus (Crotch) 1874
    • ? Hygrotus patruelis (LeConte) 1855
    • ? Hygrotus salinarius (Wallis) 1924
    • Hygrotus sayi Balfour-Browne 1944
    • ? Hygrotus sellatus (LeConte) 1866
    • ? Hygrotus tumidiventris (Fall) 1919
    • ? Hygrotus turbidus (LeConte) 1855
    • ? Ilybius picipes (Kirby) 1837
    • Ilybius fraterculus
    • Ilybius discendens?
    • Laccophilus biguttatus Kirby 1837
    • Liodessus sp
    • Neoporus superioris (Balfour-Browne) 1944
    • Rhantus binotatus
    • ? Rhantus consimilis Motschoulsky 1859
    • Rhantus sericans
    • ? Stictotarsus griseostriatus (DeGeer) 1774

    Beetles continued

  • Gyrinidae (Whirligig Beetles)
    • Gyrinus cavatus (Atton)
    • Gyrinus pectoralis
    • Gyrinus wallisi Fall
    • ? Gyrinus bifarius Fall
    • Gyrinus confinis LeConte
    • ? Gyrinus maculiventris LeConte
    • ? Gyrinus ventralis Kirby
  • Haliplidae (Crawling Beetles)
    • Haliplus immaculicollis
    • Haliplus apicalis
    • Haliplus stagninus
  • Hydrophilidae (Water-scavenging Beetles)
    • Berosus fraternus
    • Crenitis cf digesta
    • Cercycon cf marinus
    • Cymbiodyta cf acuminata
    • Enochrus hamiltoni
    • Enochrus diffusus (LeConte) 1855
    • Hydrobius fuscipes
    • Hydrochara obtusata

    Two-winged Flies (Diptera)

  • Tipulidae (Crane Flies )
    • Tipula sp
  • Ceratopogonidae(No-see-ums)
    • ?Culicoides denningi Foote and Pratt 1954
    • Bezzia nr glabra
    • Atrichopogon sp
    • Forcipomyia sp
  • Chironomidae (Non-biting midges)
    • Tanypodinae:
      • Derotanypus sp
      • Ablabesmyia sp
      • Ablabesmyia near peleensis
      • Procladius freemani Sublette
      • ? Tanypus punctipennis Meigen
    • Orthocladiinae:
      • ? Psectrocladius sp
      • Cricotopus bicinctus
      • Cricotopus intersectus
      • Corynoneura sp
    • Chironominae:
      • ? Chironomus nr annularius
      • Chironomus plumosus gr.
      • Chironomus nr decorus
      • Chironomus dilutus
      • ? Cryptochironomus sp
      • Dicrotendipes modestus
      • Dicrotendipes nervosus
      • Parachironomus tenuicaudata
      • ? Polypedilum sp
      • ? Pseudochironomus sp
      • Endochironomus nigricans or subtendens
      • Glyptotendipes barbipes
      • Glyptotendipes paripes
      • Glyptotendipes amplus
      • Glyptotendipes lobiferus
      • Microtendipes sp
      • ? Paratanytarsus sp
      • Cladotanytarsus sp
      • Cladotanytarsus nr atridorsum
      • Micropsectra sp
  • Chaoboridae (Phantom Midges)
    • Chaoborus americanus
    • Chaoborus flavicans
  • Culicidae (Mosquitoes)
    • ? Aedes campestris
    • Aedes canadensis
    • ? Aedes cataphylla
    • Aedes cinereus
    • Aedes communis
    • Aedes dorsalis
    • ? Aedes euedes
    • Aedes excrucians
    • Aedes fitchii
    • ? Aedes flavescens
    • Aedes intrudens
    • ? Aedes nigripes
    • ? Aedes pionips
    • Aedes provocans
    • Aedes punctor
    • ? Aedes riparius
    • ? Aedes spencerii
    • Aedes sticticus
    • Aedes vexans
    • ? Aedes walkeri
    • Anopheles earlei
    • Coquillettidia perturbans
    • ? Culex restuans
    • ? Culex tarsalis
    • ? Culiseta alaskaensis
    • ? Culiseta impatiens
    • ? Culiseta incidens
    • ? Culiseta minnesotae
    • ? Culiseta morsitans
  • Simuliidae(Blackflies)
    • ? Simulium arcticum Malloch
    • ? Simulium aureum Fries
    • ? Simulium croxtoni Nicholson and Mickel
    • ? Simulium decorum Walker
    • ? Simulium griseum Coquillett
    • ? Simulium luggeri Nicholson and Mickel
    • ? Simulium meridionale Riley
    • ? Simulium rugglesi Nicholson and Mickel
    • ? Simulium tuberosum (Lundstrom)
    • ? Simulium venustum Say
    • ? Simulium verecundum Stone and Jamnback
    • ? Simulium vittatum complex Zetterstedt
  • Dixidae (Dixid Flies)
    • unidentified species
  • Tabanidae (Horseflies & Deerflies)
    • ?Chrysops aestuans van der Wulp
    • ?Chrysops ater Macquart
    • ?Chrysops dawsoni Philip
    • ?Chrysops discalis Williston
    • ?Chrysops excitans Walker
    • ?Hybomitra epistates (Osten Sacken)
    • Hybomitra frontalis (Walker)
    • ?Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken)
    • ?Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Macquart)
    • ?Hybomitra nitidifrons (McDunnough)
    • Hybomitra tetrica (Marten)
    • Tabanus similis
    • ?Tabanus marginalis
    • ?Tabanus reinwardtii
  • Ephydridae (Shore Flies)
    • Ochthera sp
  • Stratiomyidae (Soldier Flies)
    • Stratiomys nr norma?
    • Odontomyia/Hedriodiscus
  • Sciomyzidae (Snail-killing Flies)
    • unidentified species

Misc. Invertebrates

    Porifera (Sponge)

    • Eunapius fragilis
    • Ephydatia mulleri

    Bryozoa (Moss Animals)

    • Cristatella mucedo

    Leeches (Hirudinea)

  • Glossiphonidae
    • Theromyzon sp
    • Helobdella stagnalis
    • Helobdella cf triserialis
    • Glossiphonia complanata
    • Placobdella ornata
  • Erpobdellidae
    • Erpobdella punctata
    • Nephelopsis obscura

    Scuds, Waterfleas, Seed shrimps, etc. (Crustacea)

  • Scud (Taltrididae & Gammaridae)
    • Hyalella azteca
    • Gammarus lacustris
  • Clam Shrimp (Conchostraca)
    • Lynceus cf brachyurus

    Snails and Clams (Mollusca)

  • Ramshorn Snails (Planorbidae)
    • Promenetus exacuous megas
    • Planorbella subcrenata
    • Planorbula campestris
    • Gyraulus deflectus
    • Gyraulus circumstriatus
  • Pond Snails (Lymnaeidae)
    • Stagnicola elodes
    • Stagnicola exilis
    • Lymnea stagnalis
  • Tadpole Snails (Physidae)
    • Physa skinneri
  • Pea Clams (Sphaeriidae)
    • Pisidium sp
    • ? Pisidium lilljeborgi Clessin 1886
    • ? Pisidium nitidum Jenyns 1832
    • ? Pisidium variabile Prime 1852
    • Sphaerium sp
    • ? Sphaerium lacustre (Muller) 1774
    • ? Sphaerium nitidum Clessin 1876

References:

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Brooks, A.R. and L.A. Kelton. 1967. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Hemiptera). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada. 51:1-92.

Fredeen, F.J. 1985. The Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Saskatchewan. Museum of Natural History, Regina, SK. Natural History Contributions. No. 8. 41 pp and 31 maps.

Fredeen, F.J.H., 1969. Culicoides (Selfia) denningi, a unique river-breeding species. Can. Ent. 101:539-544.

Hammer, U.T., J.S. Sheard and J. Kranabetter. 1990. Distributions and abundance of littoral benthic fauna in Canadian prairie saline lakes. Hydrobiologia . 197:173-192.

Larson, D.J., Y. Alarie, and R.E. Roughley. 2000. Predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) of the Nearctic region. NRC Research Press. Ottawa. 982 pp

Murry, A.R. 1975. The ecology of Saskatchewan Sphaeriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): An evaluation of some components of their environoment. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.

Nimmo, A.P. 1986. The adult Polycentropodidae of Canada and adjacent United States. Quest. Ent. 22:143-252.

Nimmo, A.P. 1987. The adult Arctopsychidae and Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera) of Canada and adjacent United States. Quest. Ent. 23:1-189.

Oliver, D.R. 1958. The leeches (Hirudinea) of Saskatchewan. Can. Field Naturalist. 72:161-165.

Oygur, S and G.W. Wolfe. 1991. Classification, distribution, and phylogeny of North American (North of Mexico) species of Gyrinus Muller (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). Bull. Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist. 207:1-97

Pers. Comm. P. Curry, SK Population Health WN monitoring data 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007.

Rempel, J.G. 1953. The mosquitoes of Saskatchewan Can. J. Zool. 31:433-509

Smetana, A. 1988. Review of the family Hydrophilidae of Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada. 142:1-316

Smith, D. H. 1984. Systematics of Saskatchewan Trichoptera larvae with emphasis on species from the boreal streams. Ph.D. Thesis U. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. SK 1302 pp.

Teskey, H.J. 1990. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada Part 16: The horseflies and deerflies of Canada and Alaska. Diptera: Tabanidae. Biosystematics Res. Center Ottawa, Ontario. Publ 1838

Walker, E. M. 1958. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol. 2. Part 3. The Anisoptera- Four Families. University of Toronto Press. Toronto.

Walker, E. M. and P.S. Corbet. 1973. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol 3. Part 3. The Anisoptera- Three Families. University of Toronto Press. Toronto

Walker, E.M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol. 1. Part 1: General. Part 2: The Zygoptera-Damselflies

Webb, J.M. 2002. Mayflies of Saskatchewan. MSc. Thesis. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 430 pages/// Webb, J.M., D.W. Parker, D.M. Lehmkuhl, and W.P. McCafferty. 2005. Additions and emendations to the mayfly (Ephemeroptera) fauna of Saskatchewan, C